Cancer in children and adolescents (age 0-19 years) is rare. Today, more than 85% of children and adolescents that have been diagnosed with cancer in Switzerland survive. The most frequent types of cancer in children (age 0-14 years) are leukemias, brain and other central nervous system (CNS) tumors, and lymphomas. These three cancer types together with germ cell tumors and certain carcinomas and melanomas make up the majority of cancers diagnosed in adolescents (age 15-19 years). Some diagnoses can be more common in boys or girls or in different age groups.